Japan: Rising Sun Notes

for The U.S. War Against Asia
by William P. Meyers

Site Search

Also sponsored by Peace Pins

Popular pages:

U.S. War Against Asia
Barack Obama
Democratic Party
Republican Party
Natural Liberation


Page 19 of 20

Notes from The Rising Sun, The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 by John Toland

Book Club Edition, Random House, New York, copyright 1970

On August 6, 1945, the city of Hiroshima was destroyed by an atomic bomb dropped by the Enola Gay on orders by President and head of the Democratic Party, Harry Truman. 245,000 civilians were in the city, but it was also headquarters of the 2nd General Army and “an important military port of embarkation.” [But earlier Toland emphasized the Japanese no longer had ships to embark in – WPM]. [962-964]

The target used for the atomic bomb was the Aioi Bridge. [966]

On August 9, 1945, the city of Nagasaki was destroyed by an atomic bomb. The target point would have hit “the center of town, the port area and reach up into the factories of the Urakami Valley.” Instead, because of limited visibility, the bomb was dropped two miles to the northwest, between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works and the Mitsubishi Torpedo factory. [993]

Russia declared war on Japan, broadcasting the news on August 9. This drove home to the Japanese leaders that no negotiated peace was possible. Togo and Suzuki decided to end the war, provided they could get the permission of the Emperor. The called an emergency meeting that started one minute before Nagasaki was destroyed. Yet Anami, Umezu, and Toyoda all wanted conditions to be made on any peace deal. [998]

Nagasaki officials put the a-bomb toll at 74,800.

It still took a lot of discussion for the Japanese to surrender. An imperial conference started shortly before midnight on August 9, 1945. There was still disagreement. After 2 hours Suzuki took the unprecedented step of asking the Emperor to express his wishes. The Emperor said: “I cannot bear to see my innocent people suffer any longer. Ending the war is the only way to restore world peace and to relieve the nation from the terrible distress with which it is burdened.” [1002-1005]

The Emperor continued: “I give my sanction to the proposal to accept the Allied proclamation on the basis outlined by the Foreign Minister.” [1006]

Many men in the Japanese military attempted to organize a revolt rather than accept the surrender [1007-1037]

The Japanese radioed acceptance of the peace conditions on August 10, 2010. [1010]

After hearing of the Japanese desire to surrender, Truman’s advisors continued to argue about retaining the Emperor. Truman decided that U.S. troops should keep fighting, and bombers bombing, until the surrender was more definitive, while drafting a reply. [1010-1011]

President Truman did decide to call off two further atomic bombings of Japan, “tentatively scheduled for August 13 and 16” while peace was negotiated. [1015]

The unofficial allied counterproposal for surrender was broadcast just after midnight, August 11, 1945. It said: “the authority of the Emperor and the Japanese government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied powers.” Also “The ultimate form of the Government of Japan shall, in accordance with the Postdam Declaration, be established by the freely expressed will of the Japanese people.” [1015-1016]

The Emperor found this allied statement acceptable, but military leaders reacted negatively. [1017]

On August 14, 1945, the Emperor, after listening to both sides, decided to accept the allied terms. [1028-1029]

Continued page 20

III Blog list of articles