Note: This is a source document for The U.S. War Against Asia
Source: The University Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Knowledge, Henry M. Mac Cracken, editor, The Co-operative Publication Society, New York, 1902
Turner, Thomas, an American naval officer; born in Washington, D. C. Dec. 23, 1808; joined the navy in April, 1825; was promoted lieutenant in 1835. He served on the frigate "Columbia," the flagship of the East India squadron in 1838-1841; took part in the destruction of Mucke and Quallat Rattoo, Malay pirate towns on the island of Sumatra in January, 1839; was commander of the storeship "Fredonia" of the Gulf squadron in 1847. In April of that year he commended the "Reefer" in the assault on Tuspan; was promoted commander in September 1855. He captured the steamers "Miramon" and "Marques de Havana" in March, 1860. These ships had been bought in Spain and were used by the Mexican revolutionary party to blockade the port of Vera Cruz. After the outbreak of the Civil War he commanded the "New Ironsides" in the South Atlantic squadron, and distinguished himself in 1863 in assaults on the forts of Charleston, S.C.; was promoted commodore in 1862 and rear-admiral in 1868, and was retired in April, 1870. He died in Glen Mills, Pa., March 24, 1863.
Comment by William P. Meyers: Here in a brief biographical note from a 1902 encyclopedia we find much that has been purposefully forgotten about U.S. history.
The Turner raid was the Second one. The Sumatra Raid mentioned by Andrew Jackson in his 1831 and 1832 State of the Union Addresses is the first Sumartra Raid or Expedition.