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Pius XI
Roman Catholic Pope

"One of the most evil and strongest influences that is felt here, perhaps
the strongest and most evil, is that of the Jews."*

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Pope Pius XI was born on May 31, 1857 in Desio, Italy as Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti. He became pope on February 6, 1922 and died February 10, 1939. I consider him to be one of the principle architects of the modern totalitarian state, and of fascism. In his encyclical Quadragesimo Anno he criticized socialism, communism and free-market capitalism while recommending a fascist social system.

Pope Pius XI and Mussolini, Betrothed

Pius XI and the Rise of Benito Mussolini

Pius XI and the Rise of Adolf Hitler

notes on John Toland's Adolf Hitler [July, 2021]

Pius XI, the Rise of Petain, and Fascist Vichy France

Pius XI and the Rise of General Francisco Franco

Pius XI and Fascism in Austria



*Achille Ratti, later Pope Pius XI, report from Poland to Pietro Gasparri, January 9, 1919, quoted in The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe by David I. Kertzer, Random House, 2014